Async Methods

Several utilities are provided for dealing with asynchronous code. These can be useful to wait for an element to appear or disappear in response to an event, user action, timeout, or Promise. (See the guide to testing disappearance.)

The async methods return Promises, so be sure to use await or .then when calling them.

findBy Queries

findBy methods are a combination of getBy queries and waitFor. They accept the waitFor options as the last argument (e.g. await screen.findByText('text', queryOptions, waitForOptions)).

findBy queries work when you expect an element to appear but the change to the DOM might not happen immediately.

const button = screen.getByRole('button', { name: 'Click Me' })
fireEvent.click(button)
await screen.findByText('Clicked once')
fireEvent.click(button)
await screen.findByText('Clicked twice')

waitFor

function waitFor<T>(
callback: () => T | Promise<T>,
options?: {
container?: HTMLElement
timeout?: number
interval?: number
onTimeout?: (error: Error) => Error
mutationObserverOptions?: MutationObserverInit
}
): Promise<T>

When in need to wait for any period of time you can use waitFor, to wait for your expectations to pass. Here's a simple example:

// ...
// Wait until the callback does not throw an error. In this case, that means
// it'll wait until the mock function has been called once.
await waitFor(() => expect(mockAPI).toHaveBeenCalledTimes(1))
// ...

waitFor may run the callback a variable number of times.

This can be useful if you have a unit test that mocks API calls and you need to wait for your mock promises to all resolve.

If you return a promise in the waitFor callback (either explicitly or implicitly with async syntax), then the waitFor utility will not call your callback again until that promise rejects. This allows you to waitFor things that must be checked asynchronously.

The default container is the global document. Make sure the elements you wait for are descendants of container.

The default interval is 50ms. However it will run your callback immediately before starting the intervals.

The default timeout is 1000ms which will keep you under Jest's default timeout of 5000ms.

The default onTimeout takes the error and appends the container's printed state to the error message which should hopefully make it easier to track down what caused the timeout.

The default mutationObserverOptions is {subtree: true, childList: true, attributes: true, characterData: true} which will detect additions and removals of child elements (including text nodes) in the container and any of its descendants. It will also detect attribute changes. When any of those changes occur, it will re-run the callback.

waitForElementToBeRemoved

function waitForElementToBeRemoved<T>(
callback: (() => T) | T,
options?: {
container?: HTMLElement
timeout?: number
interval?: number
onTimeout?: (error: Error) => Error
mutationObserverOptions?: MutationObserverInit
}
): Promise<void>

To wait for the removal of element(s) from the DOM you can use waitForElementToBeRemoved. The waitForElementToBeRemoved function is a small wrapper around the waitFor utility.

The first argument must be an element, array of elements, or a callback which returns an element or array of elements.

Here is an example where the promise resolves because the element is removed:

const el = document.querySelector('div.getOuttaHere')
waitForElementToBeRemoved(document.querySelector('div.getOuttaHere')).then(() =>
console.log('Element no longer in DOM')
)
el.setAttribute('data-neat', true)
// other mutations are ignored...
el.parentElement.removeChild(el)
// logs 'Element no longer in DOM'

waitForElementToBeRemoved will throw an error if the first argument is null or an empty array:

waitForElementToBeRemoved(null).catch((err) => console.log(err))
waitForElementToBeRemoved(queryByText(/not here/i)).catch((err) =>
console.log(err)
)
waitForElementToBeRemoved(queryAllByText(/not here/i)).catch((err) =>
console.log(err)
)
waitForElementToBeRemoved(() => getByText(/not here/i)).catch((err) =>
console.log(err)
)
// Error: The element(s) given to waitForElementToBeRemoved are already removed. waitForElementToBeRemoved requires that the element(s) exist(s) before waiting for removal.

The options object is forwarded to waitFor.

Deprecated Methods

wait, waitForDomChange, and waitForElement have been combined into the waitFor method.


Deprecated Methods

wait

(DEPRECATED, use waitFor instead)

function wait<T>(
callback: () => void,
options?: {
container?: HTMLElement
timeout?: number
interval?: number
mutationObserverOptions?: MutationObserverInit
}
): Promise<T>

Previously, wait was a wrapper around wait-for-expect and used polling instead of a MutationObserver to look for changes. It is now an alias to waitFor and will be removed in a future release.

Unlike wait, the callback parameter is mandatory in waitFor. Although you can migrate an existing wait() call to waitFor( () => {} ), it is considered bad practice to use an empty callback because it will make the tests more fragile.

waitForDomChange

(DEPRECATED, use waitFor instead)

function waitForDomChange<T>(options?: {
container?: HTMLElement
timeout?: number
mutationObserverOptions?: MutationObserverInit
}): Promise<T>

When in need to wait for the DOM to change you can use waitForDomChange. The waitForDomChange function is a small wrapper around the MutationObserver.

Here is an example where the promise will be resolved because the container is changed:

const container = document.createElement('div')
waitForDomChange({ container })
.then(() => console.log('DOM changed!'))
.catch((err) => console.log(`Error you need to deal with: ${err}`))
container.append(document.createElement('p'))
// if ๐Ÿ‘† was the only code affecting the container and it was not run,
// waitForDomChange would throw an error

The promise will resolve with a mutationsList which you can use to determine what kind of a change (or changes) affected the container

const container = document.createElement('div')
container.setAttribute('data-cool', 'true')
waitForDomChange({ container }).then((mutationsList) => {
const mutation = mutationsList[0]
console.log(
`was cool: ${mutation.oldValue}\ncurrently cool: ${mutation.target.dataset.cool}`
)
})
container.setAttribute('data-cool', 'false')
/*
logs:
was cool: true
currently cool: false
*/

The default container is the global document. Make sure the elements you wait for are descendants of container.

The default timeout is 1000ms which will keep you under Jest's default timeout of 5000ms.

The default mutationObserverOptions is {subtree: true, childList: true, attributes: true, characterData: true} which will detect additions and removals of child elements (including text nodes) in the container and any of its descendants. It will also detect attribute changes.

waitForElement

(DEPRECATED, use find* queries or waitFor)

function waitForElement<T>(
callback: () => T,
options?: {
container?: HTMLElement
timeout?: number
mutationObserverOptions?: MutationObserverInit
}
): Promise<T>

When in need to wait for DOM elements to appear, disappear, or change you can use waitForElement. The waitForElement function is a small wrapper around the MutationObserver.

Here's a simple example:

// ...
// Wait until the callback does not throw an error and returns a truthy value. In this case, that means
// it'll wait until we can get a form control with a label that matches "username".
// Previously, the difference from `wait` is that rather than running your callback on
// an interval, it's run as soon as there are DOM changes in the container
// and returns the value returned by the callback.
const usernameElement = await waitForElement(
() => getByLabelText(container, 'username'),
{ container }
)
usernameElement.value = 'chucknorris'
// ...

You can also wait for multiple elements at once:

const [usernameElement, passwordElement] = await waitForElement(
() => [
getByLabelText(container, 'username'),
getByLabelText(container, 'password'),
],
{ container }
)

The default container is the global document. Make sure the elements you wait for will be attached to it, or set a different container.

The default timeout is 4500ms which will keep you under Jest's default timeout of 5000ms.

The default mutationObserverOptions is {subtree: true, childList: true, attributes: true, characterData: true} which will detect additions and removals of child elements (including text nodes) in the container and any of its descendants. It will also detect attribute changes.

Last updated on by Matan Borenkraout